My research record shows a tightly focused, ongoing exploration of the skills and knowledge that information technology graduates need and how they can be best prepared to obtain it.
That research falls into three major streams. The following sections briefly describe each research stream, accompanied by a list of publications associated with each.
- Stream 1: Improved Teaching of Core IT Courses
This stream focuses on the integrated IS support of teaching.
It includes the development of teaching cases and projects, IT-enhanced teaching approaches including virtual teaching assistants and online support for courses, the applications of Web 2.0 and social media in education, teaching techniques and content selection for IT courses, and alternative instructional strategies in an IS/IT curriculum.
- Category 1 – Teaching Tools (Cases, Projects, etc.)
Most of the papers in this section began as course projects, and were eventually published as a means of sharing my teaching materials.
The campus event app study details a class project used by Dr. Chao to explore augmented reality.
The reference list formatter was designed as a project for an object-oriented development course, and has been tested in courses using Java, VB.Net, and C#.
The remaining three teaching cases were developed for use in my database courses. They were designed to capture students' interest through their unusual setting and details.
- Lu, Y., Chao, J. T., & Parker, K. R. (2015). HUNT: Scavenger Hunt with augmented reality. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 10.
- Chao, J. T., Pan, L., & Parker, K. R. (2014). Campus event app – New exploration for mobile augmented reality. Journal of Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 11, 1-11.
- Parker, K. R. (2010). The reference list formatter: An object-oriented development project. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 5, 23-48.
- Parker, K. R., Davis, T., & Ward, D. M. (2007). Herbicide damage tracking system: An IS case study. Proceedings of the North American Case Research Association, 21 (10), Keystone, CO: October 18-20 (p. 58).
- Parker, K. R. (2005). Lost River Wind Riders: A project for teaching database design. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 16 (24), 475-494.
- Parker, K. R. (2003). A database design case: Teton Whitewater Kayak. Journal of Information Systems Education (Special Issue on IS Teaching Cases), 14 (3), 271-274.
- Category 2 – IT-Enhanced Teaching Approaches
This category could also be called "IT-Enhanced Delivery" in order to differentiate it from "IT-Enhanced Content" below.
The focus of the papers in this category is on the use of IT to improve teaching. The first three papers are about the use of animated pedagogical agents in teaching. The remaining papers focus on online lecture materials and interactive learning.
- Parker, K. R., & Davey, B. (2011). Applied learning with the virtual teaching assistant. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Detroit, MI: August 4-7.
- Davey, B., & Parker, K. R. (2010). Technology in education: An agile systems approach. Proceedings of 2010 Informing Science + Information Technology Education (InSITE) Conference, Cassino, Italy: June 21-24 (pp. 297-306).
- Bezik, M. H., Smith, K., & Parker, K. R. (2005). SPUD's – A computer-assisted interactive project for use in intermediate accounting courses. 2005 Western Region American Accounting Association Meeting, Sacramento, CA: April 29-30.
- Parker, K. R. (2002). Using and enhancing online lecture materials. Mountain Plains Journal of Business and Economics, 3.
- Parker, K. R. (2001). Techniques to enhance online lecture materials. Proceedings of the 2001 Mountain Plains Management Conference, Pocatello, ID: October 17-19.
- Aytes, K., & Parker, K. R. (2001). Using the web to create a dynamic, interactive learning environment. Proceedings of the 2001 Mountain Plains Management Conference, Pocatello, ID: October 17-19.
- Category 3 – Applications of Web 2.0 and Social Media in Education
The papers in this category deal with the use of social media to enhance teaching. It is a more specific branch of the previous category. The latest paper attempts to involve several types of social media in teaching, including chat, Twitter, Facebook, and wikis. The other two papers focus exclusively on wikis, the first on wikis in general and the second on wiki use in education.
- Chao, J. T., Parker, K. R., & Fontana, A. (2011). Developing an Interactive Social Media Based Learning Environment. Journal of Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 8, 323-334.
- Parker, K. R., & Chao, J. (2008). Weaving a knowledge web with wikis. In M. D. Lytras, R. D. Tennyson, & P. Ordóñez de Pablos (Eds.), Knowledge Networks: The Social Software Perspective (pp. 28-45). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
- Parker, K. R., & Chao, J. (2007). Wiki as a teaching tool. Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Skills and Lifelong Learning, 3, 57-72.
- Category 4 – Enhanced IT Course Content
The papers in this category seem diverse, but all relate to the design of curriculum or course content.
The first and second papers identify a range of problems encountered in group projects and present several promising solutions.
The third paper considers the value of requiring computer science majors to take a systems analysis and design course, even in lieu of a software engineering course, because many CS graduates enter the workforce designing business application software. This approach not only provides knowledge of software development techniques, but also exposure to concepts like business rules, varied stakeholders, and business requirements elicitation.
The fifth paper explores the use of frameworks in teaching software development, and how to make the most appropriate selection.
The fourth paper presents an Information Technology Pedagogical Knowledge framework intended to facilitate the design and development of IT-related curriculum.
The sixth and last papers discuss the content of information technology hardware and systems software courses.
The seventh paper presents an instructional method for validating a relational database design.
- Houghton, R.F., Parker, K.R., Davey, B., & Bozan, K. (2017). Approaches for Addressing Student Barriers to Collaborative Learning Success. In J.S. Keengwe (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Mobile Technology, Constructivism, and Meaningful Learning (pp. 23-43). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
- Davey, B., Bozan, K., Houghton, R., & Parker, K.R. (2016). Alternatives for pragmatic responses to group work problems. Informing Science: the International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, 19 89-102.
- Beard, D.V., Parker, K. R., Ottaway, T.A., Davey, W.F., & Schou, C.D. (2013). Requiring a systems analysis and design course for a computer science major. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Frontiers in Education: Computer Science & Computer Engineering (FECS 2013), Las Vegas, Nevada: July 22-25 (pp. 257-262).
- Chao, J. T., Parker, K. R., & Davey, B. (2013). Navigating the framework jungle for teaching web application development. Journal of Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 10, 95-109.
- Chin, K. L., Chang, E., Atkinson, D., & Parker, K. R. (2007). Ontology-based IT pedagogical knowledge framework. Proceedings of the 2007 Computer Science and Information Technology Education Conference, Mauritius: November 16-18 (pp. 155-166).
- Beachboard, J. C., & Parker, K. R. (2005). Understanding information technology: What do graduates from business-oriented IS curricula need to know? Journal of Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 2, 219-236.
- Parker, K. R. (2004). A data model validation approach for relational database design courses. Journal of Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 1, 813-825.
- Beachboard, J. C., & Parker, K. R. (2003). How much is enough? Teaching information technology in a business-oriented IS curriculum. Proceedings of the 2003 Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS 2003), Tampa, FL: August 4-6 (pp. 3026-3031).
- Category 5 – Alternative Instructional Strategies
This category is closely related to the previous category, but focuses exclusively on using a model from accounting literature, the Resources-Events-Agents (REA) model, in conjunction with traditional Systems Analysis and Design modeling approaches.
- Parker, K. R., LeRouge, C., & Trimmer, K. (2005). Alternative instructional strategies in an IS curriculum. Journal of Information Technology Education, 4, 43-60.
- Parker, K. R., Trimmer, K., & LeRouge, C. (2005). The REA ontology to supplement teaching data flow diagrams. Proceedings of the 2005 Americas Conference on Information Systems: Ontological Analysis in Systems Analysis and Design Track, Omaha, NE: August 11-14 (pp. 2793-2801).
- Parker, K. R., Trimmer, K., & LeRouge, C. (2005). The correspondence between the REA ontology and data flow diagrams. 2005 Western Region American Accounting Association Meeting, Sacramento, CA: April 29-30.
- Trimmer, K., & Parker, K. R. (2004). Revising instructional strategies in systems analysis and design. Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Informatics Education Research, Washington, DC: December 10-12 (pp. 175-182).
- Category 6 – Computing Education Trends
This sub-stream focuses on computing education trends, including the use of historical trends to anticipate what we should be teaching today. In each of the papers we see that a historical perspective can be used to identify new issues to be considered by curriculum planners.
- Parker, K. R., & Davey, B. (2014). Computers in schools in the USA: A social history. A. Tatnall & B. Davey (Eds.), Reflections on the History of Computers in Education: Early Use of Computers and Teaching about Computing in Schools (pp. 203-211). Boston, MA: Springer.
- Parker, K. R., & Davey, B. (2012). The history of computer language selection. In A. Tatnall (Ed.), Reflections on the History of Computing: Preserving Memories and Sharing Stories (pp. 166-179). Boston, MA: Springer.
- Davey, B., & Parker, K. R. (2010). Turning points in computer education. In A. Tatnall (Ed.) IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, Vol. 325 History of Computing: Learning from the Past (pp. 159-168). Boston, MA: Springer.
- Parker, K. R., Nitse, P. S., & Davey, B. (2008). History of computing education trends: The emergence of competitive intelligence. In J. Impagliazzo (Ed.) IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, Vol. 269 History of Computing and Education 3 (pp. 113-127). Boston, MA: Springer.
- Davey, B., & Parker, K. R. (2006). Language history – A tale of two countries. In J. Impagliazzo (Ed.), IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, Vol. 215 History of Computing and Education 2 (pp. 139-151). Boston, MA: Springer.
- Category 1 – Teaching Tools (Cases, Projects, etc.)
- Stream 2: Impact of Developments in Information Systems on Curriculum
This stream includes software and programming language selection in light of industry trends and learning needs, as well as information assurance in systems analysis and design.
The focus of this research is to ensure that both programming languages and software tools prepare IS/IT graduates for the real world.
- Category 1 – Software and Language Selection
The papers in this category propose criteria for the selection of software and programming languages for IS or IT curricula in light of industry trends and learning needs. The sub-stream started with a focus on the selection of programming languages for introductory programming courses, and later expanded to cover the evaluation and selection of software tools for use in an IS or IT curriculum. The latest paper, still under revision, investigates whether PHP-based web development courses should use PHP frameworks to guide program development and how to select an appropriate framework. The purpose of this sub-stream is not only to facilitate curriculum and course development, but also to ensure that students are given the opportunity to use the most appropriate tools and languages.
- Parker, K. R. (2010). Selecting software tools for IS/IT curricula. Education and Information Technologies (Special Issue on Information Systems Curriculum), 15 (4), 255-275.
- Parker, K. R., Chao, J. T., Ottaway, T. A., & Chang, J. (2006). A formal language selection process for introductory programming courses. Journal of Information Technology Education, 5, 133-151.
- Parker, K. R., Ottaway, T. A., & Chao, J. T. (2006). Criteria for the selection of a programming language for introductory courses. International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, 2 (1/2), 119-139.
- Ottaway, T. A., Parker, K. R., & Chao, J. T. (2006). The selection of a language for introductory programming courses: An exploratory survey. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Western Decision Sciences Institute, Waikoloa, HI: April 11-15 (pp. 270-272).
- Category 2 – Advances in Analysis & Design
Requirements elicitation and information assurance are critical parts of system development. This category includes papers that examine ways in which requirements elicitation can be improved, and other papers that propose an approach for enforcing secure design by using the Reference Monitor concept during the early stages of early stages of systems requirements specification.
- Davey, Bill, & Parker, K. R. (2015). Requirements elicitation problems: A literature analysis. Journal of Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 12, 71-82.
- Parker, K. R., & Davey, B. (2014). A classification of requirements elicitation problems. Proceedings of the 2014 Mountain Plains Business Association Global Business Conference, Pocatello, Idaho: October 8-10.
- Trimmer, K., Parker, K. R., & Schou, C. (2009). Functional requirements for secure code: The reference monitor and use case. Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal, 12 (2), 113-119.
- Trimmer, K., Parker, K. R., & Schou, C. (2008). Functional requirements: The reference monitor and use case. Proceedings of the Academy of Information and Management Sciences, Reno, NV: October 15-17 (p. 264).
- Trimmer, K., Parker, K. R., & Schou, C. (2007). Enforcing early implementation of information assurance precepts throughout the design phase. Journal of Informatics Education Research, 9 (1), 95-120.
- Schou, C., Trimmer, K., & Parker, K. R. (2005). Forcing early binding of security using a design reference monitor concept in systems analysis and design courses. Proceedings of the International Conference on Informatics Education and Research, Las Vegas, NV: December 9-11 (pp. 321-331).
- Category 3 – Health Informatics
Many educational institutions have recently initiated, revised, or improved their HI programs or have begun offering individual courses in that area. Those programs and courses are intended to help students gain the knowledge and develop the skills needed for designing, developing, implementing, and managing health information systems across diverse settings effectively and efficiently.
- Parker, K.R., Srinivasan, S.S., Houghton, R.F., Kordzadeh, N., Bozan, K., Ottaway, T., & Davey, B. (2017). Health Informatics Program Design and Outcomes: Learning from an Early Offering at a Mid-Level University. Education and Information Technologies, 22, 1497–1513 (published online May 2016).
- Category 1 – Software and Language Selection
- Stream 3: Emerging Systems Development Issues
This stream includes computing education trends, or using historical trends to anticipate what is coming next.
It also includes research into emerging trends in development, like the Semantic Web.
Finally, this stream considers common mistakes that web developers must be taught to avoid, including color inaccuracies and other accessibility issues.
- Category 1 – Business Intelligence
Business intelligence, or competitive intelligence, reflects a new use of information systems in industry. Papers in this sub-stream reflect on what BI and knowledge management involve and how IS can be used to support such efforts. Graduates should be familiar with concepts like BI in order to be adequately prepared for the profession.
- Park, J., Fables, W., Parker, K. R., & Nitse, P. (2010). The role of culture in business intelligence. International Journal of Business Intelligence Research, 1(3), 1-14.
- Parker, K. R., & Nitse, P. S. (2006). Competitive intelligence gathering. In D. G. Schwartz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management (pp. 44-50). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
- Parker, K. R., & Nitse, P. S. (2005). Improving competitive intelligence for knowledge management systems. International Journal of Internet and Enterprise Management – Special Issue on Business Intelligence for Competitive Advantages, 3 (1), 24-45.
- Nitse, P. S., & Parker, K. R. (2005). Integrating knowledge management and competitive intelligence into both the retailing and services businesses. Proceedings of the 12th International EIRASS Conference on Recent Advances in Retailing and Services Science, Orlando, FL: July 21-24.
- Nitse, P. S., & Parker, K. R. (2003). Library science, knowledge management, competitive intelligence: Archive theory the common link. The Reference Librarian, 38 (79/80), 395-407.
- Nitse, P. S., Parker, K. R., & Dishman, P.L. (2003). Multi-class interest profile applications in the intelligence process. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 21 (5), 263-271.
- Saxby, C.L., Parker, K. R., Nitse, P. S., & Dishman, P.L. (2002). Environmental scanning and organizational culture. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 20 (1), 28-34.
- Parker, K. R., & Nitse, P. S. (2001). Improving competitive intelligence gathering for knowledge management systems. Proceedings of The 2001 International Symposium on Information Systems and Engineering (ISE'2001-Workshop: Knowledge Management Systems: Concepts, Technologies and Applications), Las Vegas, NV: June 25-28 (pp. 122-128).
- Parker, K. R., & Nitse, P. S. (2000). A multi-class interest profile (M-CLIP) for online competitive intelligence systems. Proceedings of the Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP) Academic Conference on Competitive Intelligence: Curriculum and Research, Philadelphia, PA: December 8.
- Category 2 – Semantic Web
This category is closely related to the preceding category, but adds the Semantic Web into the mix with BI and KM. Papers 1, 3, and 4 focus on the integration of the three approaches to build knowledge management centers, with papers 1 and 3 proposing the use of local libraries as knowledge management centers for small businesses. Paper 2 is a refereed text chapter that explains some of the technologies required to make a Semantic Web viable.
- Parker, K. R., Williams, R. F, Nitse, P. S., & Tay, A. (2008). Use of the normalized word vector approach in document classification for an LKMC. Journal of Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 5, 513-524.
- Parker, K. R. (2006). Enabling technologies for the semantic web. In M. D. Lytras & A. Naeve (Eds.), Intelligent Learning Infrastructures for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective (pp. 39-56). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
- Parker, K. R., Nitse, P. S., & Flowers K. A. (2005). Libraries as knowledge management centers. Library Management Journal (Special Issue on Digital Libraries in the Knowledge Era: Knowledge Management and Semantic Web Technology), 26 (4/5), 176-189.
- Nitse, P. S., & Parker, K. R. (2005). Gathering information in the digital age using the semantic web. Frontiers of e-Business Research 2005, 2, Tampere, Finland: September 26-28 (pp. 603-614).
- Category 3 – Color Inaccuracies in eCommerce
This sub-stream discusses the difficulty of accurately representing colors on eCommerce sites, and the ramifications of settling for inaccurate colors, such as customer defections. This issue is one that aspiring developers must be made aware so as to not propagate the problem in future generations of eCommerce sites.
- Parker, K. R., Nitse, P. S., & Tay, A. (2009). The impact of inaccurate color on customer retention and CRM. Informing Science: the International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, 12, 105-112.
- Nitse, P. S., Parker, K. R., Ottaway, T. A., & Krumwiede, D. W. (2004). The impact of color in the e-commerce marketing of fashions: An exploratory study. European Journal of Marketing, 38 (7/8), 898-915.
- Nitse, P. S., & Parker, K. R. (2004). Consumer perception of color depicted on e-commerce websites: An exploratory study. Proceedings of the 11th International EIRASS Conference on Recent Advances in Retailing and Services Science, Prague, Czechoslovakia: July 10-13.
- Krumwiede, D., Parker, K. R., Nitse, P. S., & Ottaway, T. A. (2004). Customer sensitivity to electronically reproduced color products: Its effect on the operation of return goods. Distribution Business Management Association Annual Conference Proceedings, Chicago, IL: May 18-20 (pp. 1-9).
- Parker, K. R., & Nitse, P. S. (2004). The impact of color inaccuracies on e-commerce sites. Proceedings of The Information Technology & Global Business Research Conference, Cancun, Mexico: March 10-13 (pp. 50-56).
- Krumwiede, D., Nitse, P. S., Parker, K. R., & Ottaway, T. A. (2003). Returning internet purchased color sensitive products: The effect on the supply chain. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of the Decision Sciences Institute, Shanghai, China: July 4-8, 2003.
- Nitse, P. S., Parker, K. R., Ottaway, T. A., & Krumwiede, D. W. (2002). The impact of consumer perception on e-commerce transactions. Proceedings of The International Applied Business Research Conference, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico: March 14-19.
- Category 4 – Web Accessibility Needs
This nascent sub-stream concentrates on web accessibility issues, such as the reading level of the content of a web site content. The first paper in this series considers the difficulties that an aging population might encounter with a government web site. Many design courses address obvious issues like the Web Accessibility Initiative – Accessible Rich Internet Applications guidelines. However, while developers can accommodate disabled users by developing screen-reader accessible sites, and can even plan to accommodate users with color blindness, they must also be taught not to overlook less obvious barriers, like readability.
- Davey, B., Parker, K. R. & Lukaitis, A. (2011). e-Government and the elderly: A two country comparison. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Detroit, MI: August 4-7.
- Bozan, K., Davey, B., & Parker, K.R (2015). Social influence on health IT adoption patterns of the elderly: An institutional theory based use behavior approach. Procedia Computer Science, 63, 517-523.
- Bozan, K., Davey, B., & Parker, K.R. (2016). A closer look at the social influence construct in the UTAUT model: An institutional theory based approach to investigate health it adoption patterns of the elderly. Proceedings of the 49th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-49), Koloa, Kauai, Hawaii: January 5-8 (pp. 3105-3114).
- Bozan, K., Parker, K. R., & Davey, B. (2017). Social Forces that Influence Health IT Use Behavior of the Elderly. In N. Wickramasinghe (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Healthcare Administration and Management (pp. 369-383). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
- Category 1 – Business Intelligence