Systems Analysis & Design:
- While programmers are responsible for coding all new programs,
analysts must take responsibility for creating and enforcing certain
- These rules might include requiring the use of structured
code, of certain formats of program documentation, and of specific
The Structured Walkthrough
- an inspection intended to expose defects in the product.
- helps to insure the correctness of the new system.
- also referred to as a formal technical review.
- one of the most important tools for discovering defects at
the earliest possible stage.
- helps to uncover places where standards have been ignored,
where inefficient algorithms have been used, or where a technically
correct program might nonetheless present future maintenance problems.
- done at all stages of a project, from the models of the analysis
phase to the structure charts of the design phase and on to the
programs and documentation of implementation.
- Organizations that subject all systems to stringent walkthroughs
can reportedly reduce the program error rate from the industry
average of three to five defects per hundred lines of code to
a more manageable average of three to five defects per thousand
lines of code.
- The team members may be analysts and/or programmers, depending
on the type of product being reviewed, and users.
- User representatives verify that the product performs as requested.
- The responsibility of the team is to give an accurate appraisal,
good or bad, of the product being reviewed.
- The participants should identify defects, but they should
not attempt to correct them, since correction is the responsibility
of the author.
- The outcome of the walkthrough is the walkthrough report.
- The report details all the problems that need attention.
- The product is accepted as it is or with minor revisions,
or it is rejected.
- Rejection is broken down into three categories:
- the product has so many serious flaws that it must be completely
- the product needs major revisions, or
- the review was incomplete and must be continued later.