SA/D Topic 2 -- Organizational Factors

Decision Levels in an Organization

Since management information can best be studied in the context of its use, one needs to study the information characteristics and the information process in an organization. One way to study this is to look at the organization in terms of a hierarchy of decisions.
                                                                      

 

Impact of Decision Levels on Information Requirements

Each decision level requires a different type of information. The factors that characterize information needs are:

 

Differences in Data Between Operating and Strategic Levels

            
                  
Operational Level Strategic Level
        Historical    Projected
        Detailed   Summarized
        Internal   External
        Frequent   Rare
        Current   Trends
        Accurate   Approximate

 

Summary of Organizational Levels of Management

Organizations as Systems


Introduction to Graphical Techniques Using Systems

data flow diagrams

entity-relationship diagrams